Anthropology explores the origins of humankind, as well as the tremendous diversity of cultural and social relations among human groups. Anthropology tackles challenging questions of human identity and experience using many allied sciences. The Neanderthals, an extinct species closely related to modern humans, have captivated us since the discovery of their remains in Europe in the nineteenth century. They were skilled toolmakers, displayed complex social organization, and may have buried their dead. Neanderthals and modern humans co-existed in Europe for thousands of years, and recent genomics research suggests that there may have been limited interbreeding. Paleoanthropologists take particular interest in studying the physical traits, migration patterns, tool development, and cultural markers of early humans and their relatives. The main image depicts Anthropology studying and balancing two skulls, one modern and the other decidedly older and very different. When the Academy dome was designed, a century of excavation and controversy surrounded the analysis of skeletal remains and especially skulls. Darwin's theory had provided the scenario of a gradual evolution of humans from animals, particularly apes. While modern bones and skulls were suggestive, excavated and older bones and skulls provided both confirmation and also many puzzles. In two, smaller images ancient, primitive man and modern, Greco-Roman man gaze at one another across time.